Tahirid dynasty

Category: After Islam, Tahirid - Date: June 10, 2020

ghale-tahirid

Tahirid dynasty is first Iranian independent dynasty after Arab’s invasion. In the beginning of 3rd century , taher ibn hossein one of mamun’s commander declared his disobedience from mamun.

He established first independent state of Iran after Islam, his state known as tahirid dynasty. During tahirid dynasty Neyshabur was capital of Iran. During war with Khawarij he defeated them and conquered Sistan and Transoxiana. He prepared safety of Iran’s borders. As a result of concentration on agriculture, farmers had good conditions during this era.

During this era maziar’s rebellion in tabarestan and Babaks’s rebellion in Azerbaijan happened.

As a result of these rebellion they had lost their focus on eastern borders. Khawarij conducted another rebellion, last emperor of tahirid dynasty mohammad ibn taher wasn’t good leader and finally at the end of third century yaghub-leis-saffari overthrown tahirid dynasty.

Tahirid dynasty was first dynasty raised up after islam and declared Iranian identity. Apparently they supported and respected to Abbasid caliphate but they had independent power in Khorasan region.

Origin of tahirid

Some people believes that their origin belongs to mythical king manoochehr  and some belives that their origin backs to rostam the mythical hero. other people believe that they belong to arab tribe khazae, but most of researchers believe that their ancestors are from sassanids, and after collapse of sassanid empire they were representative of Khorasan farmers.

Hussein as ancestor of tahir was among propagandist of Abbasid caliphate. Also father of tahir, hussein ibn mosaab was important man during kingdom of Mansur abbasi period.

Political history

Tahirid dynasty established in 205 A.H by tahir ibn hossein known as zol-yamineyn and continued till 259.

Tahir ibn hossein in 181 A.h became governor of Pushang by Ali ibn isa ruler of Khorasan. Attacking to khavarij and Hamza-bin-Abdullah khareji  and supporting Harthama Due to order of ma’mun in war with Rafe’ Ibn leis persuaded ma’mun to choose him as commander of his army.

In 195 A.h he had chosen to resist against Ali Ibn Isa amin’s commander. In battle of ghastaneh near rey he defeated him. In 197 A.H surrounded Baghdad for one years, captivate and killed Amin.

In 199 A.H for destroying rebellion of nasr ibn shabath he went to regha and stayed there till 204 A.H

After returning from sham, he had chosen as chief of Baghdad police. Finally in the year 205 ma’mun elected him as governor of Khorasan. After a while he also ruled sistan, kerman, ghomes, tabarestan, royan and rey.

In next year he eliminated ma’mun’s name from coins and prays (khotba). Finally after one and half year of ruling in khorasan he dead in 207 A.H

After tahir his son Abdullah accepted by ma’mun as ruler of Khorasan he destroyed khavarij in 216 A.H and chooses neyshabur as his capital.

He supported by later caliphs such as motasem and vasegh , he progressed agriculture and built great building in Khorasan and established great library in neyshabur.

After death of Abdullah his son tahir  elected as ruler of Khorasan by vasegh.in this era khavarij and ayyaran conquered parts of his territories. During the era of Muhammad ibn taher, Hussein ibn zeid alavi conducted a rebellion 251 A.H and conquered major parts of guilan and deilam.

In the other side yaaghub leis safari invaded herat and forced herat ruler to leave. The he attacked to pushang and completed extinction of tahirids.

Social, economic & cultural condition during tahirids

In this era Khorasan was popular place for alavids, after migration of imam reza  this popularity increased. tahirids was from sunni muslim and supported abbasid caliphate.so they suppressed alavids.

They accept Arabic language , literary works and texts of this era is in Arabic language. They bureaucracy system is in following of abbasid bureaucracy, which was in following of sassanids.

Tahirid dynasty was the first Iranian post Islamic dynasty that prepared independency of iran, but they never used violence against caliphate system.

Tahir ibn hossein founder of this dynasty was from relatives of arab tribe khazae, he had Arabic education and he was Iranian originally, his family had power & popularity in Pushang(or fushanj)

In last years of harun kingdom while his son maamun was in Khorasan ,tahir and his father became closer to maamun. During battle between maamun and amin tahir was commander of maamun’s army.

He surrounded Baghdad and defeated amin, captivated him and killed him. After a while he gain too much respect in caliphate system. Because of rebellion in Khorasan, and in order to send killer of brother to a far place maamun sent him to Khorasan.

Maamun had chosen him as ruler of Khorasan, actually it means he was ruler of Khorasan, sistan and kerman. he must fight with khavarij  and increase Islamic territories.

According to tabari his territory was from east of Baghdad to far east. Tahir claimed for independence and it made maamun feared.

After his doubtful death, (after eliminating maamun’s name from “khotbe(s)”) maamun forced to elect his son talha ibn tahir as ruler of Khorasan. After this decision hereditary rulling of Khorasan accepted by caliphate system, and maamun accepted them as a puppet.

So  tahirid independence was in form of administrative transition not a political disconnection. Talha was in continuance of his brother Abdullah, he ruled for six years. (213 A.H) his time devoted to fight with khavarijs. He also payed taxes to caliphate system.

In the era of his brother Abdullah ibn taher, tahirid dynasty was in maximum of their power and glory. After maamun death new caliphah AL-motasem forced to recognize this dynasty, so independence of tahirid officially accepted after maamun.

Abdullah tried to much for islamic  battles in Transoxiana against khavarijs.

After destroying maziar’s rebellion he became more respectful for religious people and caliph.(225 A.H)

He tried for developing agriculture and supporting farmers against lords. His Kingdom passed in saving security and increasing justice.(230 to 248 A.h)

In last years of his era ,rebellions increased in sistan. By rise of yaaghub leis this land became free from tahirid dynasty. After him Muhammad ibn tahir lost tabaristan and finally captivated by yaaghub leis.

After conquering Khorasan by saffarids this dynasty destroyed.

Also he elected as ruler of Khorasan in 271 A.h, but tahirids power had never raised. They ruled Khorasan for more than half of a century. Their capital city was marv then it changed to neyshabur.

From letters that tahir ibn Hussein wrote to his son Abdullah we can understand his ideas about leadership. This text is in the book “Baghdad” by ibn tifur.

Also there is a recommendation that Abdullah ibn tahir sent to his governors and it’s text is in “zein-al-akhbar” by gardizi.

In their coin there is name of caliphah but real ruler was tahirid king and caliph had no real power in this region.