Afsharid dynasty and King Nader

Category: Afsharid, After Islam - Date: May 23, 2020

nader_shah

Nader shah afshar was chief of afsharid tribe and king of Afsharid dynasty whom ruled Iran for 11 years. His capital city was mashhad.

Nader shah afshar born in 1688 in afshar tribe in Kabhan/ Iran.

Afshar or Avshar was one of great tribes that migrated from Anatolia to Iran beside six other great tribes. These tribes established safavid dynasty.

Afsharid tribe divided into two great branches. Ghasemlou and Arakhlou .nader shah belonged to the second one. Shah (king) Esmail safavi migrated them from Azerbaijan to Khorasan then they settled in north of that region Abivard & dare gaz to marv.

He chose that decision to make a resistance force against Uzbeks and Turkmens. Many of these tribes merged in Shahsavan tribe during Shah Abbas 1 period.

His original name was nader-gholi, nader gholi and his mother captivated by Uzbeks. After a while he escaped and returned to khorasan. He served for Abivard ruler baba-ali-beig.

He gathered small group and after controlling some regions of Khorasan he called himself nader gholi-beig.

Great feudal malek-mahmud-sistani ruler of sistan was obstacle against his raising power. In 1726 with support of shah tahmasb safavi & Fathali khan Qajar (son of shah qoil khan Qajar & grandfather of agha mohammad khan Qajar) defeated malek Mahmud Sistani and consolidated shah-tahmasb dominance in Khorasan then he changed his name to tahmasb-gholi-khan.

Shah tahmasb elected him as governor of Khorasan.in next year he cut his relations with shah tahmasb and after suppressing some Turkish tribes  became full governor of Khorasan.

Then for reaching  shah tahmasb to power started war against afghans in 1729.he defeated afghans leader Ashraf afghan in Damghan (battle of Damghan) then in morche-khort Isfahan and zarghan of fars for the third time.

During fellowship of afghans he attacked Afghanistan and dominated their tribes.

After that he noticed on foreigner enemies, he exorcised Russians from north of iran .

During the battle with ottomans he found out there is a rebellion in east of iran. He left the war incomplete . Safavid king shah tahmasb in order to prove himself continued battle and received disastrous defeat.

In 1731 and in treaty between shah tahmasb and ottamons Azerbaijan conquered by ottomans. Nader gathered chief of tribes whom supported safavid dynasty and persuaded them to firing shah tahmasb from kingdom and replaced his son, shah abbas 3 whom was a child.

In fact nader was owner of whole power, during two years he conquered Azerbaijan & Georgia against ottomans.

In 1148(SH) he gathered all rulers of Iran (near 20000 person) in Dasht e Moghan.by threats and killing of one of safavid supporter (mullah bashi) forced to accept announcement that asked nader to become king.

In 8/03/1736 nader committed his coronation, a poet “ghavamulddin madeh” made a poem “AL kheir Fi ma vaghaa” which is in coins of this period.

Nader invaded to india and conquered delhi. More than 30000 persons killed during this war. Nader returned with many trophies and put crown on the head of Muhammad shah.

His trophies was ten time more than highest income of safavid period per year. Koh-i-Noor,  Daria-i-Noor, Takht Tavus are among most famous trophies.

In last years of his life, he changed his behavior and made his son Reza-Gholi-mirza blind. After that he regretted of his action and killed people whom found guilty of this performance.

During all of these moments there were a French physician beside him and some believes he could be capable of plot.

While nader went to suppress one of rebellions he killed in his tent.

Result of his kingdom

During chaos of safavid collapse while country raided and invaded by ottomans, Russian, Uzbeks and Turkmens he normalized country. After his death karim khan zand as one of his commanders reached to power.

Due to respect to nader he’d never invaded to Khorasan and his successor ruled mashhad and Khorasan.

Nader was from last kings whom increased Iranian territory to Iranian plateau.by preparing large ships he wanted to consolidate Iran dominance to southern and northern waters.

After weakness of nader’s government united iran in size of Iranian plateau collapsed.

Iran during nader’s period

During his era enemies and invaders suppressed and country gained part of its great power under his united powerful government.

Buildings those are made during his era are khorshid palace & kalat naderi.

In his era there were great concentration on military , Iranians were hopeful on safavid kings despite of the cruelty of the latest ones.

He wanted to make naval force with the help of English man whose name was Dalton.

Nader’s successors

Nader killed many of candidates for suitable succession, after his death many of his commander establish independent regions. Karim khan zand in shiraz, Ahmad khan ebdali in  Afghanistan, Azad khan afghan in Azerbaijan and mohammad hasan khan Qajar in Mazandaran maid their own kingdoms.

In Khorasan his nephew alinaghi khan afshar killed many of afsharid prince and called himself adelshah. He was cruel person defeated mohammad hassan khan and castrated his son agha mohammad khan.

Finally adelshah killed ,fire and blinded by his brother. Nader’s grandson sharokh mirza became king, but after one year he fired and blinded by deceives of shah soleiman 2 from safavid dynasty (safavid dynasty respected by people).