zand

Zand era was only 46 years, their capital city was shiraz. they came to power after Afsharid dynasty and before Qajarids.

Karim khan zand

as founder of this dynasty annoyed the title “shah”(which means king) and chose the title(vakil_ ol_roaya)  (means: representative of people)

After death of karim khan some members of zand tribe such as zaki khan zand, abolfath khan zand, sadegh khan zand, alimorad khan zand, jafar khan zand, seid-morad khan zand and lotfali khan zand had ruled in this era.

Relationships with foreigners

Zand had commercial relations with England, some chiefs of this tribe had close relations and friendship with English agents.

Also reaction of karim khan to English businessman is a well-known reaction. He broke their porcelains and said “we don’t need yours, ours is better” this answer shows intelligence and prediction of founder of this dynasty because India had been colonized recently by British government.

Despite of these he let “East India company” to establish a firm in Bushehr and gave them some facilities. They had brought worsted and karim khan exempted their toll.

English business person hadn’t right to bring out gold and silver, and they forced to buy Iranian goods instead of the cost of their goods.

Conquering Basra in 1775 was for decreasing boom of ottoman market cause British businesspersons  established their firm in Basra five years ago. After conquering Basra they forced to accept Iranian conditions for business.

Netherland was opponent of Britain they occupied khark Island and had chosen as center of their business with Iranian and ottomans. A bandit whose name was “mir-mahna” with support and provocation of zands attacked there and exorcised them from khark island.

Also they had massive trades with Russians. In the second half of 18th century European countries started colonization in Eastern world and karim khan was aware about this event and notified his followers.

People’s condition during karim-khan

He was simple man and had no interest in luxury things. He devoted wealth of country for needs of nation. He wished his people live in happiness and peace. he was modest man who involved in society and helped people in their works.

Karim khan zand (vakil_ol_roaya)

He is known as best and most moral king after Arab invasion. He was from lor tribe zand, his father was Inagh khan and he was chief of tribe. At the beginning he was soldier of nader shah’s military.

After death of nader he  joint his tribe. By using chaotic condition of country he created a force. He made a unity with Abolfath khan and Alimardan khan. They elected abutorab Mirza as king, (by his mother he linked with Safavid dynasty).

In this unity Alimardan khan was viceroy, Abolfath Khan was ruler of Isfahan and karim khan was commander of military. After a while Alimardan khan killed Abolfath khan and conducted a rebellion against karim khan.

Karim khan gained victory. Then during wars with mohammad hasan khan Qajar(who called himself “king) killed him while he was escaping . he also destroyed or controlled survivors of afghans.

Finally he ruled great part of Iran (except Khorasan due to respect of Nader) with the title of vakil_ol_roaya. Karim was intelligent  and strategist. He respected scholars and tried for nation’s welfare.

Trade and industry was booming during his era, he had established glassmaking and porcelain factories around country. His only invasion was conquering Basra for economic reasons.

Bushehr was trade center in his era, he hadn’t good feels on British(he believed they have same project of india about iran) and preferred to trade with  france and netherlands.

But British entered for trades in different ways. Karim khan died in 1193 A.h.

He had 4 sons and 3 daughters, his older son abolfath khan gained to power.

People’s condition after his death

After his death battles among his successors created suitable situation for dominance of agha mohammad khan and Qajarid dynasty.

After conquering shiraz agha mohammad khan ordered to kill members of zand tribe, castrated lotfali khan’s commanders and ordered to rape lotfali khan’s pregnant wife and other women of this tribe.

Members of this tribe escaped to ottomans, killed, or lived anonymously in parts of country. From kings of this tribe there were grandchildren from alimorad khan whom doesn’t live in Iran.

But bureaucratic system of zands by leadership of wise man whose name was “haji Ibrahim khan Kalantar” and had betrayed lotfali khan joint to qajarids except small number of loyal members.